61. In which section is a reader most likely to find what a person thinks of a historical event?

A. Main Idea B. Why It Matters Now

C. Terms Names D. One American s Story

62. Heads are presented in different colours in order to ______.

A. gives readers a whole picture of the section

B. help readers find different kinds of topics

C. attract readers attention, especially young readers

D. get readers to identify most important points


In 1851, Auguste Comte, the French philosopher and father of sociology, coined the new word altruism as part of a drive to create a non-religious religion based on scientific principles. He defined it as intentional action for the welfare of others that involves at least the possibility of either no benefit or a loss to the actor . At that time, studies of animal behavior and phrenology(颅相学)led him to locate egotistical(自我本位的)instincts at the back of the brain, altruistic ones at the front.

Today, we have a far more sophisticated knowledge of the neurological(神经学的)and biochemical factors that underpin kind behavior. And this science forms the bases of two books aimed at general readers but also at those who, despite the research, still doubt the existence of altruism.

However, the books may end up providing more information for those who are doubtful. Take The Altruistic Brain by neuroscientist Donald Pfaff. On solid scientific ground, he builds a five-step theory of how altruism occurs, which depends on an idea that is unconvincing and may achieve the opposite result. Pfaff argues that to act altruistically you should first visualize the receiver of your good will, then mentally transform their image into your own, from angle to angle and curve to curve . Does it really work?

At the core of evolutionary biologist David Sloan Wilson s Does Altruism Exist? is another contentious(有争议的)idea: altruism has evolved as the result of group selection. But Wilson argues his corner masterfully, providing a clever reply to the belief that natural selection occurs only at the level of the selfish gene: Selfishness beats altruism within groups. Altruistic groups beat selfish groups, he says.

In other words, we cooperate when doing so gives our team the advantage. That doesn t sound very selfless either.

Wilson acknowledges this, but argues that thoughts and feelings are less important than actions. According to evolutionary theory, pure altruists do exist, but it doesn t matter why people choose to help others their reasons may be difficult even for themselves to understand. What matters is that humans can coordinate their activities in just the right way to achieve common goals. Other animals do this too, but we are masters. Teamwork is the signature adaptation of our species, he says.

Pfaff goes further, insisting that our brain biology urges us to be kind . He believes this knowledge alone will inspire individuals to be more altruistic. His desire to create a better world is admirable and some of his ideas are interesting, but Wilson s analysis is clearer.

While it is in our nature to be altruistic, Wilson says, we also have a healthy regard for self-interest and a resistance to being pushed around. Which one comes to the fore depends on the environment in which we find ourselves. Ethics, he says, cannot be taught at individual level, but are a property of the whole system .

63. Which of the following can be considered an altruistic behaviour according to Comte s definition?

A. A person offers to donate his liver to another who needs one.

B. A clerk returns the umbrella to his colleague which he has kept for a long time.

C. A student volunteers to wok in the orphanage to collect data for his research.

D. A police officer spots a car parking in the no-parking area, finding a child in the trunk.

64. What does Donald Pfaff think people should do in order to behave altruistically?

A. Draw a picture of the person they are going to help.

B. Transform the receiver into a kind person.

C. Visualize what they are going to do in mind first.

D. Imagine they themselves are to be helped.

65. Which of the following statements is David Sloan most likely to agree with in his book?

A. Being kind is not something people are born with.

B. People in groups are less likely to be selfish.

C. People may well act selflessly because of where they are.

D. Most people know clearly why they are ready to help others.

66. What can be concluded from the passage?

A. Figuring out what makes us behave selflessly is a tricky business.

B. Unlike Donald Pfaff s book, David Sloan s book aims at professional readers.

C. Comte s definition of altruism proves to be impractical in modern times.

D. Both Donald Pfaff and David Sloan lay emphasis on team work.

Section C

Directions: Complete the following passage by using the sentences given below. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.

I owe it all to my community college

In 1974, I graduated from Skyline High School in Oakland, California, an underachieving student with poor SAT scores. I couldn t afford tuition for college anyway. ___67___.

For thousands of commuting students like me, Chabot was our Harvard, offering course in physics, stenography, automechanics, certified public accounting, foreign language, journalism and so on. Classmates included veterans(老兵)back from Vietnam, married women returning to school, middle-aged men wanting to improve their employment prospects and paychecks. We could get our general education requirements out of the way at Chabot credits we could transfer to a university which made those two years an invaluable head start.

Classes I took at Chabot have rippled(起涟漪)through my professional pond. I produced the HBO mini-series John Adams with an outline format I learned from a pipe-smoking historian, James Coovelis, whose lectures were interesting. Mary Lou Fitzgerald s Studies in Shakespeare taught me how the five-act structures of Richard III, The Tempest, and Othello focused their themes.

In Herb Kennedy s Drama in Performance, I read plays like The Hot L Baltimore and Desire Under the Elms, then saw their productions. I got to see the plays he taught, through student rush tickets at the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco and the Berkeley Repertory Theatre. ___68___. I got an A. Some hours I stayed in the huge library, where I first read the New York Times, frustrated by its lack of comics.

If Chabot s library still has its collection of vinyl records(黑胶唱片), you will find my name repeatedly on the takeout slip of Jason Robards s performance of the monologue of Eugene O Neill. ___69___.

Chabot College is still in Hayward, though Mr. Coovelis, Ms. Fitzgerald, and Mr. Kennedy are no longer there. I drove past the campus a few years ago with one of my kids and summed up my two years there this way: ___70___

A. I listened to it 20 times at least.

B. That place made me what I am today.

C. Community colleges have improved a lot these years.

D. Those plays filled my head with expanded dreams.

E. Of course, I enjoyed the pleasure of eating French fries between classes.

F. So I sent my test results to Chabot, a community college in nearby Hayward, California, which accepted everyone and was free.

IV. Summary Writing

Directions: Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main point(s) of the passage in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.

Learn from mistakes

The best way to learn something is to make mistakes first. Thomas Edison, who invented the light bulb, told his colleagues: Of the 200 light bulbs that didn t work, every failure told me something I was able to incorporate into the next attempt. Benjamin Franklin, the US statesman and scientist once said: I haven t failed. I have had 10,000 ideas that didn t work.

Both these people understood that failures and false starts are the condition of success. In fact, a surprising number of everyday objects had their beginnings in a mistake or a misunderstanding. Post-it-notes, packets of crisps and even bread are all unexpected inventions. In 2600 BC, a tired Egyptian slave invented bread when the dough rose during his sleep . And crips were first cooked by a chief in the USA when a customer complained that his fried potatoes were not thin enough.

In 1958 Spencer Silver was trying to develop a strong adhesive when he accidentally invented a very weak glue instead. His colleague, Art Fry , decided to use it six years later, in 1974, to hold his bookmarks in his books and the post-it note was invented.

Successful businesspeople have often made big , expensive mistakes in their past. When an employee of IBM made a mistake that cost the company $600,000, Thomos Watson, the chairman, was asked if he would fire the man. Of course not, he replied. I have just spent $600,000 training him. I am not going to let another company benefit from experience.

The important thing to remember is that you need to learn from your mistakes. If you don t ,then there is no sense in making them.

V. Translation

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

1. 熬夜会大大消耗你的体力。 (drain)

2. 很多人看上去很忙碌,其实没有任何效果。 (seem)

3. 当我一个人在家的时候,常常会选择订一些外卖食物而不是亲自下厨。 (rather than)

4. 汽车租借服务在许多城市都非常普遍,给人们的生活带来了很大便利。 (making)

VI. Guided Writing

Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

你校计划举行一次英语演讲比赛,题目为 The person I want to meet ,你有意参加此项比赛,并决定为此比赛写一份演讲稿,内容包括:

1. 我最想遇到的人是谁。

2. 我为什么想要遇到他。

成人高考英语模拟试题参考答案 21 whose, his 23, to win 24, aged 25, amazing 26, with 27, has looked/has been looking 28, However 29, that 30, fastest

31-35 H FBD C 36-40 E G J AK

41-45 CBADB 46-50 ACADC 51-55 ACDBB

56-59 B C A C

61-62 D D A

63-66 A D C A

67-70 FEAB

summary writing(参考答案)

The best way to learn something is to make mistakes first(要点1). And failures and false starts are the condition of success. In fact, lots of everyday objects had their beginnings in a mistake (要点2).Besides, Successful businesspeople have often made big , expensive mistakes in their past(要点3). All in all, The important thing is that you need to learn from your mistakes.


1, Staying up late will drain your energy greatly. / will be a great drain on your energy.

2, Many people seem busy , but it has no effect.

3, When I stay at home alone, I often choose to order take-out food rather than cook by myself.

4, Car rental services are very common in many cities, making people s life more convenient.













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